Osteoplasty in dentistry

    Loss of teeth brings a lot of trouble and if time does not solve this problem, do not avoid complications. In the absence of load, the jaw bone atrophies and becomes unsuitable for prosthetics. Osteoplasty in dentistry: what is it and how does it help to solve this problem?

What is bone atrophy?

Even before dental implantation was invented, preparation for prosthetics in most cases was to build a reliable base for fixing dentures for patients who are faced with the problem of bone atrophy.

At that time, such an operation was very difficult and required the patient’s stay in the hospital with a long recovery period. Now the operation of osteoplasty is performed on an outpatient basis, and the recovery period is not so painful and reduced significantly.

Alveolar crest decreases both in height and width, which greatly complicates the implementation of implantation. The fact that the implant can perform its functions in a hollow measure, it must be surrounded by bone tissue on all sides. In the vast majority of cases, the need to increase the missing volume of bone occurs in the anterior parts of the jaws.

What is dangerous atrophy of the jaw bone?

The consequences of atrophy do not pose a threat to life, but provokes unpleasant complications:

  • distortion of the shape of the face, premature ageing and appearance of wrinkles,
  • osteoplasty in dentistry
  • displacement of adjacent healthy teeth,
  • speech disorder,
  • lip sinking,
  • difficulty while chewing food,
  • bite change,
  • difficulties in the prosthetics process,
  • problems with the gastrointestinal tract.

Indications for bone augmentation surgery:

  1. After tooth extraction

After tooth extraction in an empty place, bone tissue gradually atrophies, which will certainly lead to problems in the future, when the patient decides to prosthetics. Therefore, it is better to take appropriate measures immediately after tooth extraction to protect yourself from complications in the future.

  1. Periodontitis

Periodontitis is accompanied by pathological inflammatory processes in the tissues, which in most cases leads to a decrease in bone tissue.

  1. The effects of trauma jaw

Jaw injuries also have a negative impact on the condition of the bone and often require surgery.

Contraindications:

  • any inflammatory processes in the oral cavity,
  • comorbidities in acute or chronic form,
  • HIV,
  • osteoporosis and other bone diseases,
  • oncology,
  • pregnancy,
  • mental disorder,
  • blood disease.

Types of bone implants

The materials used for bone grafting operation, are divided into several types:

  1. Autotransplant

Autogenous bone graft-the patient’s bone. This material can be taken from the bone of the chin, lower jaw, bone area of the palate. This is the most effective method in modern dentistry, as the patient’s own tissues-the most predictable material for use in maxillofacial surgery.

  1. Xenografts

These are materials of animal origin, made from bone of cattle. Such material is produced in the form of bolts or chips. They are inferior in quality to the autografts, but also widely used in osteoplastica.

  1. Alloplasts

These are materials obtained by artificial means-hydroxyapatites-the main component of bone tissue.

Sinus lifting

In most cases, atrophy develops on the upper jaw, due to the peculiarities of its anatomical structure. Most of the bone in the upper jaw is the maxillary sinus. To restore the missing volume of the bone on the upper jaw, a sinus lifting operation is performed. There are 2 types of sinus lifting:

  1. The open method involves the displacement of the sinuses: it is cut from the side, a small part of the wall is cut. On a vacant place as a biomaterial.
  2. Closed method is possible with sufficient bone volume (about 8 mm). At the site of atrophy, the doctor makes a hole through which the material is introduced. The technique allows you to drive bone augmentation and implant installation simultaneously.

The recovery period lasts about six months.

Directed bone regeneration

To restore the lost volume of bone is possible not only by the method of tissue grafting, there is another method – bone building with the use of special drugs, this method is called directed bone regeneration.

For these purposes, osteoinductive drugs are used, bone-substituting materials that stimulate osteogenesis – the development of bone tissue. At the heart of such materials are bone proteins responsible for the activation of those genes that activate the division of stem cells.

At the site of atrophy, special membranes are also used, which restore blood circulation. The most popular among them are two – layer membranes made of collagen, the inner part of which is treated with fibrin and growth factor. The membrane activates the growth of bone tissue, stimulating the formation of cells.

Directed bone regeneration can also be carried out with the help of drugs-distractors and bioactive substances that stimulate vertical tissue growth.

Stage of operation

Bone augmentation surgery takes place in several stages:

  1. Preparation: examination, evaluation of the results of the images, the choice of methods and materials for the operation.
  2. The operation is performed under General anesthesia.
  3. The gum or sinus is cut.
  4. The doctor installs the biomaterial and fixes it.
  5. The free space is filled with bone chips.
  6. The protective membrane is fixed.
  7. The incision is sutured.

The operation can last from 40 minutes to several hours, it depends on the chosen method. The recovery period takes about 6 months. Implantation is carried out after complete recovery of the patient after surgery.

Recovery period

The success of the operation depends not only on the skill of the dentist and the technique and materials used, but also on the actions of the patient after the operation. During the recovery period, the patient must adhere to the following recommendations:

  • minor bleeding in the first few hours after surgery is normal. But if the blood does not stop throughout the day, it is necessary to inform the specialist who performed osteoplasty,
  • follow all prescribed procedures, do not chew on the operated area, drink through a straw, food and drinks should be warm,
  • sleep is recommended on several pillows so that the head is higher than the body,
  • in the postoperative period, swelling and pain in the operated area is a variant of the norm. The doctor will prescribe a painkiller, and often patients are prescribed antibacterial drugs to prevent complications. All drugs should be taken strictly as prescribed by a specialist,
  • bath, sauna, hot tub, Smoking, alcohol, air travel, exercise are contraindicated in the recovery period.